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    Người gửi: Ngô Quỳnh Trâm (trang riêng)
    Ngày gửi: 21h:14' 21-10-2008
    Dung lượng: 9.1 MB
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    1
    E12
    1. The role of the teacher
    2
    A MOTIVATOR
    motivate ss
    get ss involved in creating activity
    help ss generate ideas

    A RESOURCE
    provide information & language
    offer advice & suggestions
    A FEEDBACK PROVIDER
    give feedback on ss` writing tasks with special care
    respond positively & encouragingly to the content of ss` written work
    2. KINDS OF WRITING IN GRADE 12
    3
    CONTROLLED WRITING
    gap-filling
    re-ordering sentences
    sentence-building
    FREE WRITING
    letter writing
    paragraph writing
    report writing
    giving instructions
    describing chart / book / a sporting event
    4
    3. Some problems with free writing
    A. Many students find it quite difficult
    because of
    1. having no / lack of ideas
    2. limited vocabulary to express opinions
    3. disability of using structures ,style or language in English standards

    B. Students would probably approach the task in different ways and produce a wide variety of different paragraphs
    4. Approaching the free-writing task
    5
    SELECTING THE CONTENT
    analyze the topic (instruction/ key terms / the aspect of the topic)
    find & select IDEAS (brainstorming// finding more ideas)
    ORGANIZING IDEAS
    classify ideas
    select relevant ideas
    rank ideas
    SELECTING THE LANGUAGE
    select simple & correct English vocabulary in terms
    prepare some common clauses / sentence connectors / expressions
    ensure to have a good grasp of the essential grammar points (tenses / passive / parts of speech / structure)
    FACILITATING WRITING TASKS
    Tasks adaptation and implementation
    1- Making tasks easier:
    - Breaking down tasks

    - Scaffoldoing

    - Lowering requirements

    2- Making tasks more challenging/more interesting

    Solutions:
    Teachers should help students progress beyond very controlled writing to freer writing by guiding their writing ( GUIDED WRITING)
    + Giving cues.
    + Giving a short text as a model.
    + Doing oral preparation for the writing.
    MODELLING
    1. Reading a model and noticing certain grammatical features / vocabulary / useful expressions / text organisation / style…
    2. Putting different parts of the text onto a writing frame
    3. Sequencing a jumbled text
    4. Comparing and contrasting two forms of text of the same genre
    discussing
    brainstorming
    observing and interpreting photos or artwork
    watching video clips
    using writing templates/ frames / cloze exercises
    mapping
    Brain writing
    Using matrix
    Some examples of oral preparation for the writing
    Brainstorming:

    Getting Ss’ ideas on paper so they can give themselves the widest range of topics possible

    Clustering: mapping out ideas
    Environment
    destruction
    Air pollution
    ………………..
    ……..
    Waste
    disposal
    ………….
    deforestation
    Animal endangered
    …………
    Brain writing
    Ss sit around a table in their group
    Write down two or three ideas on a topic on a sheet of paper
    Place their paper at the centre of the table
    Pick up someone else ‘s response and read it
    Write down more new ideas on the response.
    Using matrix - An unforgettable day

    Four Square Writing

    Step 1: Categorizing - Pictures
    Pets
    Step 1: Categorizing - Words
    Zoo
    Lion
    Elephant
    Giraffe
    Camel
    Step 2: Examples and a Feeling Sentence
    Zoo
    Lion
    Giraffe
    Elephant
    I like going to the zoo to see the animals.
    Step 3: Cont…
    2. Reason –
    We learn here.

    3. Reason –
    We meet friends.
    4. Reason –
    We do experiments.
    5. Feeling –
    I love school.
    Complete sentence –
    School is a great place.
    Step 4: Writing a Paragraph
    Paragraphs are several sentences on the same topic.
    Now transfer the sentences from the four blocks to lined paper for paragraph building.
    Whole class modeling is best to teach this.
    Step 5: Adding More Details
    Moving from a 5 sentence to an 8 sentence paragraph; go back into the 4 square.
    Add one additional detail sentence in each box.
    Elaboration: tell more about the topic or tell what is so great about it.
    Reason: We learn here.
    Detail: I like to learn
    science.
    Reason: We meet friends.
    Detail: My best friend is in my class.
    Reason: We do experiments.
    Detail: I built a volcano yesterday.
    Feeling Sentence: I love school.
    Complete sentence –
    School is a great place.

    Step 6: Adding Supporting Details
    Learn
    read
    math
    science
    Friends
    share lunches
    invite over
    do homework together
    Play
    in centers
    on playground
    recess
    School is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play.
    School is a great place.

    Step 7: Adding Connecting Words to Provide Transitions Between Ideas
    First
    Learn
    read
    math
    science
    Also
    Friends
    share lunches
    invite over
    do homework together

    Next
    Play
    in centers
    on playground
    recess
    So you can see
    School is a great place because we learn, meet friends, and play.
    School is a great place.

    Language Arts Use
    Book Review
    Title
    Beginning
    End
    Middle
    Did you like it?
    Four Square in Science
    An excellent way to review or summarize information learned about a specific process.
    Volcanoes
    What are they?
    How do they operate?
    Where are they?
    Volcanoes are a powerful, natural force.
    Workers
    Resources
    The workers, resources, and transportation are important to a community.
    Community
    Transportation
    Four Square in Math
    Word problems require the employment of logic and reasoning different from the usual compute and solve drills.
    These problems require that students develop their own equation, and then perform an unnamed operation to find a solution.
    Process
    Information
    Solution
    +
    4, 2
    6 A Students
    Mrs. Smith had four straight A students.
    Then 2 more in her class got straight A’s.
    How many A students does she have in all?
    4+2=___
    Question
    Compute
    WRITING POEMS
    One word title



















    _______________
    SPORT
    Two words describing the title
    HAVE FUN
    _______________
    Three verbs expressing an action
    _______________
    RUNNING , JUMPING , SLIDING
    WRITING POEMS
    Four words expressing a feeling



















    _______________
    LAUGHING , SHOUTING ,
    CRYING , ALIVE
    Another word for a title
    _______________
    LIVING
    Sport
    Have fun
    Running , jumping , sliding
    Laughing , shouting , crying , alive
    Living

    http://www.eduplace.com/activity/ poem cinquain.html
    ( From Thomas Farrell )
    Using correction codes :


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